*Interpretations
of Quantum Mechanics*

*And Superstring Theories*

*By:
**Dr. Sam Vaknin*

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*THE QUANTUM STRING - AN INTEGRATIVE
APPROACH*

Following is a series of essays which, together, constitute a detailed overview of string theories and their possible aftermath.

I, then, proceed to develop a few ideas regarding a possible integrative approach.

*Table of Contents:*

*A. Overview of String and
Superstring Theories*

*B. More on the Inner
Workings of String Theories*

*H. From Supergravity to
Membranes*

*Abstract*

**Strings**

Strings are described as probabilistic ripples (waves) of spacetime (NOT in a quantum field) propagating through spacetime at the speed of light. From the point of view of an observer in a gravitational field, strings will appear to be point particles (Special Relativity). The same formalism used to describe ripples in quantum fields (i.e., elementary particles) is, therefore, applied.

Strings collapse (are resolved) and "stabilize" as folds, wrinkles, knots, or flaps of spacetime.

The vibrations of strings in string theories are their probabilities in this theory (described in a wave function).

The allowed, netted resonances (vibrations) of the strings are derived from sub-Planck length quantum fluctuations ("quantum foam"). One of these resonances yields the graviton.

Strings probabilistically vibrate in ALL modes at the same time (superposition) and their endpoints are interference patterns.

D-branes are the probability fields of all possible vibrations.

**The Universe**

A 12 dimensional universe is postulated, with 9 space dimensions and 3 time dimensions.

Every "packet" of 3 spatial dimensions and 1 temporal dimension curls up and creates a Planck length size "curled Universe".

At every point, there are 2 curled up Universes and 1 expressed Universe (=the Universe as we know it).

The theory is symmetric in relation to all curled Universe ("curl-symmetric").

All the dimensions - whether in the expressed Universe (ours) or in the curled ones - are identical. But the curled Universes are the "branches", the worlds in the Many Worlds interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.

Such a 12 dimensional Universe is reducible to an 11 dimensional M Theory and, from there, to 10 dimensional string theories.

In the Appendix we study an alternative approach to Time:

A time quantum field theory is suggested. Time is produced in a non-scalar field by the exchange of a particle ("Chronon").

**The Multiverse**

As a universe tunnels through the landscape (of string theory), from (mathematically modeled) "hill" to "valley", it retains (conserves) the entire information regarding the volume of (mathematically modeled) "space" (or of the space-like volume) of the portion of the landscape that it has traversed. These data are holographically encoded and can be fully captured by specifying the information regarding the universe's (lightlike) boundary (e.g., its gravitational horizon).

As the universe's entropy grows (and energy density falls), it "decays" and its inflation stops. This event determines its nature (its physical constants and laws of Nature). Eternal inflation is, therefore, a feature of the entire landscape of string theory, not of any single "place" or space-time (universe) within it.

**Note of caution:**

What is interpreted to imply the existence of**
**multiple universes may be merely an artefact, enumerating all the ways that
a four-dimensional surface can be folded, using supersymmetric formalism.

*Also Read:*

*Time Asymmetry Re-Visited
(Abstract Only)*

*Anthropic Agents and the
Increase of Entropy (Abstract Only)*

*The Decoherence of Measurement*

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