By: Dr. Sam Vaknin
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M o n e y
In the Past / Today
Amber / Coins
Beads / Banknotes
Drums / Checks
Eggs / Credit cards
Feathers / Bonds
Gold / Stocks
Gongs / Derivatives
Ivory / E - money
Jade (I - money)
Kettles / E - securities
Salt (=² Salary )
THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF WESTERN ECONOMY
1. Value - Intrinsic and Consensual
2. Exchange or Bartering
5. Reward or return (=Yield)
THE FUNCTIONS OF MONEY
Unit of (a)ccounting
Common Measure of value
Medium of exchange
Means of payment
Standard for deferred payment
Store of value
(Framework of) market allocative system (=prices)
Causative factor (in economy and psychology)
Controller (of the economy - e.g., through the money supply)
Money is anything which is widely used for making payments and accounting for debts and credits
THE FUNCTIONS OF THE MODERN BANK
The Keynesian (=Investment) multiplier
The deposit (=Credit) multiplier
The Loan - loss and Deposit - insurance reserves
The Basel Accords and their proposed Amendments
Functions by Categories
Guarantees (financial / bank, performance)
Securities and portfolio management services
Foreign Exchange and Derivatives
Electronic services (informative, operative, home banking, documentary - EDI)
Business development and Investments
Off hour services (e.g., ATMs)
Credits - uses
For capital / investment expenditures
Current (working) capital
Imports and capital imports
Exports: raw materials
documentary discounts (=factoring)
Special groups: students, lawyers, franchisees, etc.
Credits - forms
Fixed and Variable interest
Nominal and Indexed (=linked), optional
Grace and Balloon loans
Leasing - capital, financial, operating, leaseback
Subsidized state credits
Documentary / Incoterms (ICC) / other terms (CMI)
Collect Documentary credits
Consumer loans and mortgages
Third party credits and collection services
SECURITIES AND INVESTMENT PORTFOLIO
Services and reports to investment portfolio managers
Hedging and Derivatives
Investment Portfolio Management
Mutual Funds (=unit trusts)
Pension, retirement and education funds
Forex and exchange rate hedging
MONEY AND LANGUAGE
|England||Weights||Expendere||Spend, Expenditures, Pound|
|Ancient World||Weight||Stater||Balancer, Weigher|
|China||Cowrie Shells||= Money||(Pictograph)|
|Greece||Trapezium - table||Trapezitai||= Bank in Greek|
THE ORIGINS OF MONEY
The Story of Moneta
1. Preference of certain items as media of exchange
2. Commodities: conveniently and easily stored
high value densities
3. Money developed not only to effect barter:
to compensate and appease
to pay for brides
to pay taxes and tributes
as religious sacrifice
4. Banking in Mesopotamia: grains were kept in palaces
5. Checks in Egypt: instructions to withdraw grains from the royal warehouses
6. Gold served as today's foreign exchange does
7. Banknotes were first issued in China (=cash)
8. Coins were used to:
maintain standards of purity and weight
to demonstrate political independence
as propaganda and to denote events
9. Fast forms of financing:
money changing (Jesus in Jerusalem)
Bottomry (=carriage of freight by ships)
(much latter - 1156 AD): bills of exchange
10. Revolution: counting instead of weighing!
Royal minting and the concept of premium.
11. Another revolution: the symbolization of the money system - banknotes.
INTEREST RATES AND INFLATION
1. Interest rates were meant to compensate for:
The risk of inflation which will erode the money's value
(The Purchasing Power Theory)
The risk of default on the repayment of the credit
The scarcity of the supply of money
2. Today, interest rates are an instrument of monetary policy
3. They are used to:
Control the money supply and the monetary aggregates
Control economic activity
4. Two problems:
Central Banks / the State no longer fully control
The money supply
There is no proven relationship between short - term
Interest rates and any other economic variables
5. Three Paradoxes:
(A) High interest rates = high financing costs = higher prices = higher inflation
(B) High interest rates = higher exchange rate = conversions of larger amounts of foreign exchange + higher prices (of imported products) = higher inflation
(C) High interest rates = difficulty to repay old debts = increasing credit risks = higher interest rates
THE MONEY SUPPLY
M - 1 Currency in circulation
Commercial bank demand deposits
NOW and ATS accounts
Credit Union share drafts
Mutual savings bank demand deposits
Nonbank travellers checks
M - 2 M - 1
Time deposits under $100,000
Money markets mutual funds shares
M - 3 M - 2
Time deposits over $100,000
L M - 3 and other liquid assets:
Eurodollar Holdings of US residents
Documentary Credits and
INCOTERMS - International Commercial Terms
1. Part of international sales contracts. Regulate:
(A) Carriage of goods from seller to buyer
(B) Export and import clearances
(C) Division of costs and risks between the parties
2. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), Electronic Data Interchange for Administration Commerce and Transport (EDIFACT) and Uniform Rules of Conduct for Interchange of Trade Data by Teletransmission (UNCID).
Internet: GE - TPN
3. Electronic Bills of Lading - CMI Uniform Rules.
4. The container revolution and cargo unitization: FCA, CIP and CPT Emphasis shift from means of conveyance to place. Omittance of FOR / FOT / FOBA.
5. Case Study: warehouse to warehouse insurance and the FOB point.
CIF - seller exposed to claims for failing to reach the ships rail on time.
6. The mirror method - the 10 headings.
7. INCOTERMS - part of larger picture (deal with delivery and with nothing after delivery - not with quantity, costs of loading / discharging, clearance, transport, risks of loss / damage and insurance against them, title, quality breach of contract or price). There are: Contract of sale, applicable law, custom of trade.
FOB Buyer would insure - difference between obligation and commonsense.
8. Specific reference required. Example: trading with a US firm (UCC - AFDT).
9. CISG - Contracts for the International Sale of Goods: POD where breach is determined in conjunction w / Incoterms (concerning delivery).
10. D-terms: seller's delivery obligation is extended to the country of destination (arrival contract)
E-terms, F-terms, C-terms: seller fulfils delivery obligation in his country (shipment contract)
11. The common error: there is no connection between risks, costs and delivery.
12. F-terms: Free of risks
C-terms: Costs borne after critical risk point reached
C-TERMS: 2 points of interest: delivery and risk / costs
13. FCA buyer to instruct seller how to hand over goods - and where
FCL Full loads (railway wagon / container) vs. LCL break bulk
14. FOB additional service
Seller contracts for carriage - though he has no obligation to do so
15. FOB The port decides how to distribute loading
16. FAS Seller does not have the obligation to clear goods for exports
17. C-terms Do not stipulate arrival date! seller obliged to ship good so that they
18. CFR, CIF Only by sea! A8 demands bill of lading / sea waybill
If Buyer wants to sell in transit - he will be unable because of lack of the right document Þ breach of seller
19. CIF, CIP Minimum Cover vs. all risk and political
CASH IN ADVANCE / BANK GUARANTEE / CREDIT INSURANCE
Letter of Credit (agreement between 2 banks)
- revocable, irrevocable / confirmed
- conformity (to words in shipping documents)
Sight Draft (=COD) - Document against Payment
- original shipping document attached Þ CB (collecting bank)
- original bill of lading made to the order of the shipper and endorsed by him
- to order of CB
- notification to drawer of draft about payment
- like sight drafts but paid X days after acceptance
- the CB holds and presents for payment
Bank Guarantee dependent on underlying obligation or independent (=note)
- Bid bonds - dependent
- Performance bonds - dependent
- Advance Payment bonds - dependent
- Payment Bonds - independent but with recourse and stoppable by court injunction
DLC - Documentary
FLC - Financial
SLC - Standby
- CLEAN (Self contained)
- REGULAR (dependent on an event)
Factoring and FORFAIT / EMC
Financing (=LOAN / Credit line) on Approved Accounts
Recourse Factoring: Collection + Financing
How to choose a Factor?
Profile of users of Factoring
Restricted access to credit
High or low net worth
Credit - worthy customers
Successful products / services
Conventional Min 2 ½ %, 3 days (5% per 30 day invoice)
weekly agings, daily collection reports
credit services, fees prorated daily,
biweekly reserve releases, 24 hour funding
no hidden fees / long term contracts
Debt Consolidation Payment to creditors when company is in default
Maturity On pre-approved account debtors
Financing / Sale - Leaseback (for bankrupt companies) including equipment
How it works
Bring invoice + delivery slip
Receive upto 80% of the face amount
Receive the balance (reserve) when the invoice is paid
The "Constitution" of International trading - UCP 500
An introduction to Western Capital Markets
Hidden Assets of Business Firms:
Refinancing equipment through international leasing
Raising funds from non-banking sources
ADRs and ADSs: selling shares in the Western capital markets
Small businesses - the Western Experience
Financial Intermediaries - past and present characteristics
Pooling allows large scale borrowing
Diversification allows risky loans
Expertise & expert systems and artificial intelligence
Customization of investment securities (examples: GNMA, CMO, Convertibles, Warrant in bond)
Avoidance of taxes and regulations - Government involvement - insurance (e.g., FDIC) and operations (examples: Eurodollars, Zero coupons, stripping, Dual funds)
Automatisation / computerization
Types of markets
Direct search: sporadic
Brokered Services in primary market: search, valuation
Dealer (example: OTC)
Auction (example: NYSE)
Financial Markets - present and future trends
Globalization more communications, less regulation (examples: ADRs, ADSs, Foreign securities)
Securitisation / passthrough (examples: CARs, Bank loans, SLMA)
Credit enhancement insurance - flotation
Bundling and unbundling (examples: Mortgages, Composite securities)
Risk investments / venture capital: seed money
PPO / PPM
Virtual banking, Finance and Investments
Conditions for the development of capital markets
A healthy, growing economy leading to the growing profitability of firms
The right MICRO- and MACRO-Economic Management
Low real interest rates with high savings rates
Full, timely and accurate information and full disclosure (accounting)
Speed and Ease (modern technology)
Fairness, Transparency and Honesty of banks and financial markets
Legislation and law enforcement
Traditional classification of securities markets
Money market (cash equivalents): short term
Capital market long term
Types of capital markets long term, fixed income
derivative - options
derivative - futures
Money market instruments
T-bills (treasury bills)
Certificates of deposit (CDs)
Eurodollars: time deposits
Repos and reverses
Fixed income (capital market) instruments
Treasury notes and bonds
Federal agency debt FHLB
(example: financing the farm sector, in the USA):
12 District Bank for cooperatives (seasonal loans)
12 Federal Land Banks (mortgage loans on farm property)
12 Federal Intermediate Credit Banks (short term loans for production and marketing crops & livestock)
Municipal bonds (MUNIS) general obligation (full faith and credit)
industrial development (private purpose)
tax anticipation notes
Corporate bonds secured
Mortgage backed securities
Features: residual claim (dividends)
Full, audited disclosure
Democracy and equality
Corporate governance rules
Problems: incompetence / agency
Management pecuniary control / problem
Corporate takeovers and takeover defences
Dividend yield vs. capital gains (appreciation)
Preferred stock (fixed dividend, no voting, default does not lead to bankruptcy)
Price Weighted Average (Index) - ERRONEOUS / (examples) / INDEX FUNDS
- cumulative, dividend exclusion, redeemable, convertible
Market Value Weighted INDEX I
Equally Weighted Index
Derivative Assets (contingent claims)
- CALL / PUT Options (=rights) Premium
- FUTURES and FORWARDS (=obligations)
Firms float through investment bankers in the primary market.
Trading already issued securities - in the secondary market.
IPOs vs. Seasoned new issues (STOCKS)
Public offering vs. Private placement (BONDS)
Underwriting: lead, syndicate
Red Herring (preliminary prospectus filed with SEC) ® PROSPECTUS
Firm commitment (Investment Bank buy from issuer sell to public), OR
Shelf registration (Rule 415, 1982)
Underpricing and oversubscription
Exchanges and seats, listing criteria
Circuit breakers (the Brady commission)
OTC dealer - broker market: BID and ASK
Third & Fourth Market (INSTINET / POSIT)
National market system
Regulatory agencies: SEC, FED, CFTC, SIPC
National acts and Blue Sky (State) Laws
Advantages of mutual funds:
Record keeping and administration, diversification & divisibility, professional management, lower transaction costs
AUTHORITIES - KNOW-HOW - FUNDING
DATA - TARGETS - NEEDS
With workplaces (counters nepotism)
Pyramid approach + minimum time / location commitment*Assistance: USAID, MBRC, SBA, ISRAEL'S SBA, UNIDO, WB, IFC, ACCOUNTING FIRMS, KHF, EBRD
2. Small Businesses
Unemployed voucher communities
Entrepreneurial skills and specific programs (BP, marketing, financial)
Training (at least, supervision) by international firm / organization
Intrapreneurship (in big firms)
Universities (part ownership)
Big business (partners)
Banks (micro credits) & Securitization in the West
Sharing / OSS
Venture capital, emerging markets funds, intellectual property
4. Regional Development Planning
The role of academic institutions
Report evaluation - practical recommendations + implimentation
One-stop shop (revolving door) coomcept
Sector financing in the West
1. FINANCING INSTITUTIONS / INTERMEDIARIES
SLAs (the 1986/87 crisis)
Pension funds (international diversification)
Investment banks / brokers (blind trust)
2. TRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF MARKETS
Money market (=equivalents) short term
Capital market long term
- Types of (capital markets) long term, fixed income
derivative - options
derivative - futures
Virtual markets E-money
3. MONEY MARKET INSTRUMENTS (low risk, high liquidity)
3.A.1 T(reasury) Bills
Bank discount yield (BDY) = PAR - Pb / PAR ´ 360 / n
vs. Effective annual yield (EAY) = (1 + PAR - Pb / Pb %)366/n
B. Banks / Brokers
3.B.1 Certificates of deposit (CDs)
FDIC - insured
3.B.3 Repurchase agreements (REPOS) and reverses
Overnight interest (the 1985 fraud scandal)
3.B.4 Federal funds LIBOR
Among banks vs. the Federal reserve system
Overnight / at financial statements dates
3.B.5 Brokers' calls
Against O/C (on call) loans
3.B.6 Bankers' acceptances
Used in foreign trade
3.C.1 Commercial paper
Backed by line of credit (LOC)
Upto 270 days (to avoid second registration)
Rollover (the Penn Central 1982 scandal)
4. FIXED INCOME (Capital Market) Instruments
4.A.1 Treasury notes
Upto 10 years
4.A.2 Treasury bonds
Between 10 - 30 years
(Used to be) callable in the last 5 years
Annualized percentage rate (APR) = Bond equivalent yield (BEY) =
PAR - Pb / Pb ´ 365 / n = 365 ´ BDY / 360 - (BDY ´ n)
4.A.3 Federal agencies' debts (no Federal insurance!)
FHLB (securities ® credits to SLAs ® individual mortgages)
FNMA / GNMA
Example: Financing the farm sector:
12 district banks (for seasonal loans to cooperatives)
12 Federal land banks (mortgage loans on farm property)
12 Federal intermediate credit banks
(short term loans for production and marketing)
Example: Mortgage backed securities
Conventional vs. adjustable W/CAPS
Prepayment option at principal (not at PNV)
4.B.1 Municipal bonds (MUNIS)
Types: General obligation (full faith and credit)
Industrial development (private purpose)
Tax anticipation notes
4.C.1 Corporate bonds
Debentures - Junk
D. Small Business
(See separate pages)
E. Micro Credits
2. Imported products = imported employment = internal unemployment
3. The affair of the corn laws (landowners vs. industrialists) in Britain (19th century)
4. Ricardo's theory of Comparative Advantage
5. Absolute advantage - fewer resources to produce same products
Comparative Advantage - it take less to produce the same in terms of other goods
6. Two country / two goods model - mutual absolute advantages
Phase A: Mutual absolute advantage
Wine 6 2
Tobacco 2 6
Phase B: Land allocation for equal unit production
Wine 25 x 6 = 150 75 x 2 = 150 300
Tobacco 75 x 2 = 150 25 x 6 = 150 300
Phase C: International trading
Wine 100 x 6 = 600 0 600 (Mac. sells 300 to USA)
Tobacco 0 100 x 6 = 600 600 (USA sells 300 to Mac.)
7. Trade enables countries to move beyond previous resource and productivity constraints.
8. Two country / two goods model - unilateral absolute advantages
Macedonia USA Totals
Wine 50 x 6 = 300 75 x 1 = 75 375
Tobacco 50 x 6 = 300 25 x 3 = 75 375
Phase B: Land allocation for equal unit production
Macedonia USA Totals
Wine 75 x 6 = 450 0 450 (Mac. sells 100 to USA)
Tobacco 25 x 6 = 150 100 x 3 = 300 450 (USA sells 200 to Mac.)
9. Explanation: The opportunity cost of 3 bales of tobacco in Macedonia is 3 litres of wine - in USA, only 1 liter.
The opportunity cost of 1 litre of wine in Macedonia is 1 bale of tobacco - and in the USA it is 3 bales.
10. When countries specialize in production of goods in which they have a comparative advantage - they maximize their combined output and allocate their resources more efficiently.
11. Terms of trade: The ratio at which a country can trade domestic products for imported ones.
In the above example: 1 litre wine = 2 bales tobacco
Macedonia benefits because its opportunity cost is 1 = 1
(it would get 1 bale domestically by giving up 1 litre)
USA benefits because its opportunity cost is 1 = 3
(it would have to give up 3 bales domestically to get 1 litre)
12. Exchange rates determine the terms of trade.
For any pair of countries, there is a range of exchange rates which can lead to both countries realizing gains from specialization and comparative advantage.
Within that range, the exchange rate will determine which country gains the most from trade.
13. Two country /two good worlds
Wine 3 DM $ 1
Tobacco 4 DM $ 2
Exchange ratePrice of DMResult
$ 1 = 1 DM $ 1 Macedonia imports both
$ 1 = 2 DM $ 0.5 Macedonia imports wine
$ 1 = 2.1 DM $ 0.48 Macedonia imports wine
$ 1 = 2.9 DM $ 0.34 USA imports tobacco
$ 1 = 3.3 DM $ 0.33 USA imports tobacco
$ 1 = 4 DM $ 0.25 USA imports both
14. Comparative advantage can be expressed in terms of exchange rates:
Instead of comparing goods directly - money is used.
In Macedonia - the production of 1 bale of tobacco costs 4/3 litres of wine.
15. Exchanges rates in the right ranges drive countries to shift resources into sectors in which they enjoy comparative advantages.
16. Factor endowments - the quantity of labour, land and natural resources of a country
17. Heckscher - Ohlin theorem and the Leamer corollary
A country has a comparative advantage in the production of a product if that country is relatively well endowed with inputs (natural resources, knowledge capital, physical capital, land, skilled and unskilled labour) used intensively in the production of that product.
18. Why countries import and export the same product?
Differentiation of products in response to diverse preferences / brand loyalty.
19. Acquired (versus natural) comparative advantages (specific skills, goodwill)
1. Protection - shielding a sector of the economy from (foreign) competition
2. Tariff - tax on imports
Export subsidy - payment to encourage exports
Dumping - sale of products at prices below the costs of production
Quota - limit on quantity of imports (mandatory and legislated or voluntary and negotiated)
3. GATT, the Uruguay round, the WTO, latest multilateral WTO agreements
4. Free trade zones: EU, NAFTA, MERCOSUR, FTA (economic integration)
5. Trade barriers
Prevent a country from benefiting from specialization
Push it do adopt inefficient production techniques
Force consumers to pay higher prices for protected products
6. ProtectionCounter - Argument
(A) Saves Jobs · Reallocation - not disappearance
· Retraining and relocation
(B) Unfair trade practices
Underinvestment in environment
(C) Cheap foreign labour · Reflects lower productivity
(unfair competition) · This IS comparative advantage
(D) Protect national security · Every industry uses it
(E) Discouraging dependency
(F) Safeguarding infant industries · No infant industry asked help
(allows them to acquire comparative advantage)
(H) Protection against · What is proper rate?
temporary currency overvaluation
COUNTERTRADE - (A) GENERAL
1. Countertrade - a transaction which links exports to imports in place of a financial settlement
(A) Trade financing risky (debt crisis)
(B) Tight import credits (because of low exports)
(C) Entry into new markets (both the exporter and the importer)
(D) Products differentiation and creating competitive advantages
(E) Convertibility or political - financial problems
3. Transaction phases
(A) Identify target country arrangements / regulations
(B) Evaluate their attractiveness and
(C) Find the most favoured one from the buyer's perspective
(D) Match your strengths with current / potential countertrade
(internal / external uses for the goods, distribution network)
(E) Consider the accounting / taxation aspects
(F) Choose between in - house expertise and outside specialists
(G) Beware of risks:
(1) Quality and consistency of goods
(2) Delivery times
(3) Supplier reliability
(4) Changes in the value of goods over time
(5) Negative attitude of Governments and IFO's (e.g., EXIM bank in USA)
4. Countertrade is a marketing tool:
(A) Generating hard currency for clients
(B) Helping them to market their products
(C) Sharing (information, marketing, technology, production)
5. Countertrade components
(A) Piecing together sources of finance, services and supplies in different countries to minimize hard currency net outlays of the importer.
(B) Creating FOREX income for the importer through unrelated protects / new investments.
(C) Partial payment in soft currencies through reinvestment of the proceeds in the importer's country.
(D) Escrow accounts in foreign banks funded by the importer through export revenues (hedge until counterdelivered goods are sold).
6. Arguments in favour of countertrade
(A) International commerce - an extension of national (economic) policies.
(B) (Leads to) a preference to deal with trade competition through bilateral accommodations favouring domestic exporters.
(C) Uneven recovery rates and protective import policies.
(D) A hedge against declining trade levels.
(E) The growing third world debts.
(F) Constraints on credits and debt rescheduling.
(G) Dependence of developing countries on import - led growth and export expansion for debt servicing and unemployment.
(H) Tool of long term industrial policy and economic planning.
7. Factors affecting the future of countertrade
(A) Ability of world markets to accommodate counterdeliveries.
(B) Nature of assets offered (raw materials, components, finished goods).
(C) Streamlining of bureaucratic bottlenecks.
(D) Willingness of western exporters to engage in higher risk trade.
COUNTERTRADE - (B) FORMS
1. Countertrade and offset are reciprocal arrangements.
Countertrade is the exchange of goods and services intended mainly to alleviate FOREX shortages of importers.
Offset is intended to advance industrial development objectives.
2. Assets exchanged include physical goods, services (e.g., tourism, engineering or transportation), rights (licences, leases, etc.), lien instruments (e.g., sovereign promissory notes), or temporary ownership (BOT - built, operate, transfer arrangements).
3. Developed industrialized countries emphasize technology and production processes while developing countries emphasize additional exports.
4. The contractual arrangements include cashless exchange of goods of comparable value, parallel import / export transactions with their own separate finances, production sharing / equity position.
5. Countertrade ratio - percent of the value of export offset by counterdeliveries.
DISAGGIO - subsidy paid as a commission / discount by the exporter to a broker responsible for marketing counterdeliveries.
(in the hands of the broker it is AGGIO)
SWITCH - transfer of rights to countertrade goods to third parties.
Protocol / link or framework contracts - side agreement linking the primary and secondary contracts in a countertrade.
6. Bilateral Government - To - Government trade agreements -
Reciprocal market access privileges (preferential terms):
(A) To integrate the economies using clearing units - exporters and domestic currency by their Central bank.
(B) Special political / regional trade relations.
(C) Trading interests for raw materials sources.
7. SWING - margin of credit allowed on a bilateral clearing account (beyond which all trading stops ) - usually 30%.
Clearing SWITCH - DISAGGIO driven financial operations. Bilateral imbalances are monetarised by brokerage networks through final sale products sourced from the country with the clearing arrear (or rights to products).
8. Forms of compensatory trade arrangements
OFFSET - in cases of purchases of military / (high cost) civilian equipment, counter - purchases are demanded as compensation.
Usually in the form of expansion of industrial capacity: coproduction, licensed production, subcontracting, overseas investment, technology transfer, countertrade.
(IN) DIRECT OFFSET - articles (not) related to the sale.
BARTER - one time exchange of goods / services of equivalent value.
[examples: US - Jamaica, the dissolution of COMECON, Brokers' swaps]
BUYBACK (Compensation) - exporter receives products derived from the export.
Each leg is regulated by a separate contract.
COUNTERPURCHASE - exporter receives products unrelated to the export.
Exporter not allowed to transfer his credits and some advance purchases by exporters qualify.
UMBRELLA (Coutertrade agreement) - includes multiple trading partners.
Between Western exporters and Government entity (Evidence account)
Between Governments concerning specific products (Bilateral clearing)
Countertrade used to release blocked currencies / funds
(Expatriation of profits against compensation)
OFFSHORE ESCROW ACCOUNTS - insulation from local banks ensure timely payments to exporters
Allowance for insufficient cash flows (production / marketing slippage)
COUNTERTRADE - (C) ANALYSIS AND PLANNING
1. BENEFITS (mainly intangible)
(A) Locking in foreign market shares
(B) Circumventing export restrictions
(C) Supporting subsidiaries /affiliates
(D) Depleting surplus inventory
(E) Preserving production / employment levels
2. COSTS (mainly tangible)
(A) General and administrative (handling, documentation)
(B) Subsidy (DISAGGIO)
(C) Financing and insurance (including holding & escrow accounts)
(D) Performance / completion guarantees
(A) Expensive and partial insurance
(B) Political risks and bureaucratic delays
(C) Liability claims (personnel, product)
(D) Property risks (direct damage or time dependent)
(E) Lack of standardization
(F) Shortfalls in delivery and marketing of the products
(G) Losses due to delays: changes in production / export priorities
sudden unavailability of raw materials
(arbitrary) marketing restrictions
contract failures of brokers / end users
(A) Analysis and viable pricing (maybe inflation of export prices)
(B) The right contract
(C) An insurance policy
(D) Information about the importer, the markets and potential competitors
brokers / end users
(E) Recognising anticipatory purchases and additionality requirements (transferable)
(F) Separate the contracts to insulate performance and
to facilitate financing, guarantees and insurance
5. The CONTRACTS
(A) Primary sale - standard export contract + countertrade clause
(B) Link contract - the countertrade contract includes:
(1) amount and period of obligation
(2) type, standards, pricing criteria of counterdeliveries
(3) names of companies providing counterdeliveries
or: free choice clause.
(4) transferability clause
(5) currency of payments
(6) notification and remittance procedures
(7) rights or restrictions affecting the marketing of goods
(8) non-performance penalties and damages
(9) disputes, termination, unavailability of goods
(C) Counterpurchase (buyback) contract includes:
(1) reference to primary contract
(2) standards, specifications, pricing, handling
(3) disputes, force majeure, arbitration, law, indemnities
COUNTERTRADE - (D) SUPPORT SERVICES
1. TRADING HOUSES have:
(A) Specialists and experience
(B) Financial resources
(C) Positions in markets and / or marketing networks
Can help with:
(A) Marketing and representation
(B) Transportation, warehousing, insurance
(C) Finance: credits and investment management
(D) Manufacturing, upgrading
2. BANKS - advisory services and matchmaking
switch trading of clearing currencies and debt conversions
3. INSURANCE - state and private (LLOYDS, CHUBB, AIG)
4. OTHERS - law firms, trade consultants and information firms, export management companies, government agencies, industrial giants
1. International trade is determined by exchange rates.
2. History: The gold standard, Bretton Woods (1944-1971), the snake (EMS), the Louvre accord (1985).
3. Influences on foreign exchange: central banks interventions, macroeconomic policy, statements by policymakers.
4. Balance of payments: the record of a country's transactions in goods, services & assets - current account and capital account.
5. (Merchandise exports - merchandise imports) = balance of trade (deficit or surplus) + (exports of services - imports of services) = net export / import of services + (income from investments) - (payments to investors) = net investment income + net transfer and other payments = current account
6. Increase (-) or decrease (+) in private (and in Government) assets abroad + increase (+) or decrease (-) in foreign private (and in Government) assets in the country = balance of capital account
7. + statistical discrepancy = balance of payments
8. Debtor and creditor nations
9. The effect of a sustained increase in Government spending (or investment) on income (= the multiplier) - is smaller in an open economy, some of the extra consumption goes to imports.
Multiplier = 1 / 1-(MPC-MPM) (in open economy)
10. Anything that affects consumption - affect imports (income, aftertax real wages, aftertax nonlabour income, interest rates, relative prices and the state of the economy).
11. The trade feedback effect - export increases consumption which increases imports. Imports in one country is exports in another which increases consumption and so on.
An increase in one country's economic activity leads to worldwide increase in economic activity which feeds back to that country. Its imports stimulate other countries' exports which stimulate those countries' imports and so on.
12. Prices of exports / imports are influenced by inflation.
Export prices of other countries affect a country's import prices.
Inflation is exported through export. It affects a country's import prices.
13. An increase in the price of imports affects local prices:
(A) Through stagflation: rising prices and falling output
(B) Expensive imports lead to increased demand for domestic products
14. The price feedback effect
Inflation in one country is exported to another and then re-exported to the first.
15. The demand and supply for currencies
Firms, households and Government that import / export
Tourists in / out the country
Buyers of stocks, bonds or other financial instruments in / out the country
Investors in / out the country
Speculators who bet with / against a currency
16. What affects appreciation and depreciation of currencies?
The law of one price (for the same good everywhere)
For the same basket of goods - the exchange rate would be determined
by the relative price levels in the 2 countries
This is the purchasing power parity theory (PPP)
17. PPP does not account for transportation costs
substitute products are not identical
baskets of goods are different
18. Relative interest rates - higher rates lead to appreciation
19. Imports, like taxes and savings are a leakage from the income - consumption cycle.
Exports are like investments and Government purchases (stimulate output).
20. A depreciation stimulates exports and domestic consumption = the GDP
21. The J curve: balance of trade gets worse before its gets better following a currency depreciation.
Exports increase, imports decrease, currency price of exports doesn't change very much (until domestic prices adjust), currency price of imports increases.
The value of imports increases, even as volume decreases, initially.
22. Expansion of money supply, decrease in interest rates, investment and consumption, lower inventories, rising income (output).
Lower demand for debt securities, lower demand for currency, more foreign securities bought, currency sold and depreciates, stimulates the economy.
MACROECONOMY AND THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM
1. J.M. Keynes (1936) - links between money market & goods market
Aggregate demand, output, expenditure
Activist Government against inflation, unemployment
Policies to manage macroeconomy (fiscal, monetary)
2. Inflation and recessions (1974-5, 1980-2) & revisionism:
Policies could have no effect on macroeconomy
3. Velocity of money (V) equals GDP / M equals [ Y (output, income) times P (price level)] / M
ERGO M times V equals P times Y
4. Quantity theory of money:
V constant V Monetary policy (M) affect GDP
If M doubles GDP doubles - and it cannot change unless M changes
5. V influenced by institutional factors (salaries, processing in banks)
By interest rates
But if so - not constant!
6. Example: Central bank increases M - interest rates fall - demand increases
- more money held per $ income - lower V
7. Empirical data: V not constant
Example: Tiny change in V - huge change in GDP
8. Which money supply measure to use?
The broader - the smoother V is.
9. The time lag between M and its effect on GDP - so maybe V is constant.
10. Government spending financed by money supply (Central bank purchases bonds) induces inflation.
If V and Y constants (Y at its limit) -
P will increase when M increases and only if M increases
V becomes constant at a high level.
11. Monetarists are against activist Government - it makes the economy less stable because of time lags.
Friedman: M should grow with Y.
12. Arguments between Keynseyans and monetarists
13. New classical macroeconomics
The flawed, linear treatment of expectations
People ignore information that would optimise their performance
(this is against rationality in microeconomics)
14. The failure of the Philips curve (inflation - unemployment) ® stagflation
15. The rational expectations hypothesis (using true model)
Errors only due to random events - but in true model, they balance out
(true model = all available information)
16. Forecasts have benefits - information has costs.
Irrational not to use cheap information.
17. Prices and wages will be set to ensure equilibrium in all markets.
18. When expectations are rational - disequilibrium only temporary
and a result of a shock
So, Government should never intervene.
19. Lucas supply function Y = fD (P - Pe) P - Pe = the price surprise
(A) People / firm specialists in production - generalists in consumption
know more about prices of what they sell
Then about prices of things they buy.
(B) Firms perceive increases in prices of their products more quickly than increase in the general price level (same with workers - wages).
They increase output.
(C) If expectations regarding prices are on target - output will not be influenced by price level.
20. Anticipated policy changes have no effect on real output - no price surprise.
21. Governments must surprise people to affect the economy.
22. Are expectations rational?
If not - there would have been arbitrage opportunities.
23. But it requires households and firms to know too much.
Costs of learning true models outweigh the benefits (=profit opportunities).
24. Supply side economics
Supply changes as function of aggregate expenditure (linked to Aggregate demand).
Fiscal policy affects Aggregate Expenditures through taxation and Government spending.
Monetary policy influences investments and consumption through changes in interest rates.
Both are demand oriented (supply reacts passively)
25. High rates of taxation and heavy regulation -
reduces incentives to work, save and invest
Supply stimulus is needed leads to more labour, more capital, more goods leads to lower unemployment and inflation
26. The Laffer curve - lower tax rates, bigger tax bases
(A) Tax cuts will not increase labour supply (even reduce it = substitution effect)
(B) Negative elasticity of savings
(C) Tax cuts lead to increased demand and Aggregate Expenditure.
28. Economic growth - increase in total output in an economy.
Modern economic growth - began with the industrial revolution.
29. Economic growth expands the production possibilities frontier (PPF).
30. Industrial revolution in agriculture and in textiles.
31. Technological innovation frees resources which encourages growth.
32. Growth occurs when society acquires more resources or increases efficiently of using current ones.
33. Growth - an increase in real GDP per capita.
34. Aggregate production function - the relationship between inputs and output.
35. GDP can increase through
(A) increase in labour
(B) increase in (physical / human) capital
(C) increase in productivity / efficiency
36. Diminishing returns - increase in labour with fixed capital:
The new labour will be less productive [Malthus]
37. Malthus neglected technological change and capital accumulation.
38. In an expanding economy (new capital stock) - new labour does not displace old labour
39. Capital stock provides services directly enhances the productivity of labour
40. In modern economies capital expands quicker than labour.
41. The importance of human capital
42. What affects productivity?
(A) Technological change (invention leading to innovation)
(B) Other know-how (invention JIT, management fads, accounting, data, etc.)
(C) Economies of scale
(D) Other factors (e.g.: pollution & safety standards, weather, strikes)
43. Public policies and economic growth
(A) To improve the quality of education
(B) To increase the savings rate
(C) To encourage RND
(D) To reduce regulation
(E) Industrial policy (allocation of capital across manufacturing sectors)
(F) Growth policy
44. Arguments pro growth
(A) Satisfaction of more needs and wants (progress)
(B) Improvement in the quality of life
(C) More choice of products
(D) Freedom not to do unpleasant things and time savings
(E) Higher quality
(F) More jobs, welfare
45. Arguments anti growth
(A) Adversely affects the quality of life
(B) Creates artificial needs and enslaves the consumer
(C) Cannot be sustained ® finite resources
(D) Requires unfair distribution of income
1. Why the inequality in the distribution of income and what should the Government do about it?
2. The concept of utility maximization: if A gets more total utility than B - A is better off than B.
3. The utility possibilities frontier - any line inside it is inefficient.
4. Efficiency & equality
5. The efficient point is determined by endowments.
6. But these solutions leave out non-productive people (poor).
7. Taxes are money transfers to the poor, considered just by the majority.
8. Income and wealth are imperfect - but sole - measures of utility.
9. Income derived from: Wages and salaries in exchanges for labour
Property (including capital)
10. Competitive market theory - All factors of production (including labour) paid a return equal to their marginal revenue products.
11. Productivity (and income) vary among types of labour.
12. Human capital - stock of knowledge, skills and talents that people possess, inborn or acquired
13. Compensating differentials - differences in wages that result from differences in working conditions.
14. Multiple household incomes - source of inequality.
15. Housewiving exposes the weaknesses of the utility measurement method.
(What is the money utility of a housewife?)
16. Unemployment fosters inequality.
17. Income from property creates inequality and depends on the quantity and the types of assets.
18. Wealth is created through savings and inheritance.
19. Equity in owner occupied houses - source of inequality.
(by avoiding to pay rent or by receiving rental home)
20. Transfer payments - made by the Government to people who do not supply goods or services in return.
Reduce the inequality in income distribution.
21. Economic income - the amount of money that a household can spend in a given time without increasing/decreasing net assets.
22. Salaries and wages are more evenly distributed than total income (including from property).
23. Lorenz curve - describes the distribution of income.
Cumulative percentage of families (horizontal axis)
Cumulative percentage of income (vertical axis)
24. The Gini coefficient - ratio between shaded area and triangular area below the 45 degree line.
25. Poverty - a function of how much it costs to buy necessities of life.
26. Poverty is relative - the official poverty line: 3 times the cost of the minimum food budget.
27. Wealth - accumulation of past generations small businesses become big result of risk taking in a market economy - provides an incentive structure.
28. Arguments against redistribution
(A) Market is fair, productivity is rewarded justly
(B) Productive capital yields profits or interest
(C) Freedom of contract and protection of property rights
(Taxation violates these rights)
(D) Interference with the basic market incentives and discourages risk taking
(E) reduction in total output
(F) Sizeable, inefficient bureaucracy
(G) It does not work!
29. Arguments pro re-distribution
(A) Moral obligation to provide basic necessities
(B) No fault of children and mentally afflicted, the old and unlucky
(C) Utalitarian justice - marginal utility of income declines with income.
Transfer payments increases total utility.
(D) Social contract theory - rawlsian justice
(F) Income distribution as a public good
1. Shareholding - What is it?
2. Types of shares
3. Book of shareholders and share certificates
4. Rights of shareholders
5. Guarantees of the rights of shareholders (work?)
6. Share trading limitations (charter, access to book of shareholders, low level of education and information)
7. Voting rights - Proxy
8. New issues of shares
Civil law - French
11 of 49 countries have one share - one vote system
In Japan no Proxy
call shareholders meeting in USA - 33% in Mexico
1. Conflict between shareholders and management
- Agency problem
- Proxy fights
2. Democratic management:
Disclosure and independent auditing
3. Approval of management decisions by shareholder meetings
4. One share - one vote and proxy for absentees
5. Management subject to control by board of directors
6. Directors chosen by shareholders in meetings
7. Meetings can be called by shareholders and by management.
One annual meeting mandatory.
8. Closely held corporations
9. Residual claim
10. Preferred stock - perpetuity (cumulative dividend)
1. Corporation - Charter (certificate of incorporation) from state:
Rights and obligations of shareholders
Must be approved by the state
Shareholders amend charter
2. Certificate to shareholders with: number of shares on it (registered)
holdings in corporation's books
3. Entitled to receive: Dividend payments
4. Shares transferable with help of issuing corporation
or transfer agents (banks, trust companies)
5. Transfer agents cancel old certificates
and issue new ones
Computerised lists in "records companies"
6. Registrar - Registers
7. Clearing of transactions
Certificates deliverable, within 5 business days
(unless cash transaction or seller's option transaction)
Owned by transfer agents
Receive transaction records daily
Verification for consistency (netting)
Each member receives: List of net amounts of securities to be delivered/received + net money paid/collected
Daily settlement with clearinghouse
9. Depository trust company (DTC)
Computerised lists of securities "owned" by members in corporation's books - shares on DTC's name.
Internal bookkeeping of share transaction between members
Dividends credited to members accounts - withdrawn in cash
10. Cumulative voting system or
Majority (straight) voting system
In both: Number of votes = number of shares x number of directors to be elected
11. In MVS - votes cast per director £ number of shares
(shareholder with 50% + 1 share elects all board)
In CVS - votes cast per director £ number of votes
n - minimum of shares
n = + 1 d - numbers of directors shareholder want to elect
s - outstanding shares
D - numbers of directors to be elected
12. CVS allows minority representation and is mandatory in some USA states.
13. The principal - Agent problem - long term stock options to the management
14. PAR value - corporation precluded from paying common stockholders if doing so will reduce balance sheet value of stockholder's equity bellow par value of outstanding stock.
15. No PAR stock - stated value instead.
16. Paid in capital = D (sale price - PAR value) of share
17. Common stock = PAR x numbers of shares
18. Book value = retained earnings + common stock + paid in capital
19. To issue additional stock - charter must be amended
20. Treasury stock - no voting, no dividends
21. Classified stock - with respect to dividends and voting
22. Pre-emptive rights of first refusal to buy new shares at a discount (rights)
Rights can be sold
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